Determinants of Restrictive Spirometric Pattern in a Sub-Saharan Urban Setting: A Cross-sectional Population-based Study

Eric Walter Pefura-Yone1, 2, *, Adamou Dodo Balkissou1, 2, Andre Pascal Kengne3, 4
1 Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
2 Pneumology Service, Yaounde Jamot Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
3 South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
4 University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa

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Creative Commons License
© Pefura-Yone et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon Tel: (237)696539726; Fax: (237)222203165; Email:



Restrictive spirometric pattern is a risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


We assessed the prevalence of restrictive pattern and investigated its determinants in a major sub-Saharan Africa city.


Participants were adults (≥ 19 years) who took part in a population-based survey in Yaounde (Cameroon) between December 2013 and April 2014. Restrictive pattern was based on a FVC below the lower limit of the normal (LLN) and a ratio forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/FVC ≥ LLN (LLN-based restrictive pattern) or a FVC <80% and FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN (fixed cut-off based restrictive pattern). Determinants were investigated by logistic regressions.


In all, 1003 participants [514 (51.2%) women] with a mean age of 33.7 years were included. The prevalence of restrictive pattern was 18.8% (95%CI: 16.6-21.2) based on LLN and 15.0% (13.0-17.2) based on fixed cut-off. LLN-based restrictive pattern was mild in 148 (78.3%) subjects, moderate in 35 (18.5%) and severe in 6 (3.2%). Determinants of LLN-based restrictive pattern were age ≥ 60 years [adjusted odds ratio 2.90 (95%CI 1.46-5.77), p=0.002), history of pulmonary tuberculosis [3.81(1.42-10.20), p=0.008], prevalent heart diseases [3.81 (1.20-12.12), p=0.024] and underweight [5.15(1.30-20.39), p=0.020]. Determinants were largely similar with slightly different effect sizes for fixed cut-off based restrictive pattern.


Restrictive pattern was very frequent in this city.

Clinical implications

These results enhance the needs to increase the efforts to prevent and control tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases and underweight in this setting.

Keywords: Africa, Cameroon, Low forced vital capacity, Prevalence, Pulmonary restriction, Restrictive lung disease.