Protocol: Influence of Budesonide and Budesonide/Formoterol on Asthma Control in Smoking Asthmatic Adults

Louis-Philippe Boulet*, 1, Francine Deschesnes1, Simone Chaboillez2, Catherine Lemière2
1 Centre de recherche de institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Québec, Canada
2 Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Canada

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© Boulet et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, 2725, Chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, Qc, GlV 4G5, Canada; Tel: 418-656-4747; Fax: 418-656-4762; E-mail



A reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) has been reported in smoking asthmatic patients but the effects of other medications remain to be evaluated in this population.

Subjects and Methods:

We evaluated the effects of a combined therapy of budesonide 200 µg twice daily and formoterol 6 µg twice daily compared with budesonide 200 µg twice daily alone on asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ- Juniper), pulmonary function and airway inflammation, in a cross-over randomized double-blind study with treatment periods of two months separated by a one-month wash-out period. Seventeen smoking and 22 non-smoking patients not using inhaled corticosteroids with slightly uncontrolled mild asthma completed the study.


ACQ and AQLQ scores were similar in both groups at baseline and improved similarly after treatments. β2-agonist use was higher in smokers, regardless of the treatment received (p=0.03), as it was on baseline (p=0.003). Smokers treated with budesonide/formoterol showed an increase in the number of asthma episodes (intercurrent asthma symptoms, p=0.016) while non-smoking subjects had a significant decrease in these episodes (p=0.009). No difference was found between smokers and non-smokers in regard to post-treatment airway inflammatory parameters.


No significant differences were found between smoking and non-smoking subjects with mild asthma in regard to clinical changes in asthma control, pulmonary function and airway inflammation following a 2-month treatment period with budesonide or the association of budesonide and formoterol for a period of 2 months. This should be further explored in larger groups of subjects.

Keywords: Asthma, formoterol, budesonide, smoking..