The Impact of Vaccination on Influenza-Related Respiratory Failure and Mortality in Hospitalized Elderly Patients Over the 2013-2014 Season



Manish Joshi*, 1, Deepak Chandra 2, Penchala Mittadodla 1, Thaddeus Bartter 1
1 Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
2 Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA


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© Joshi et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, 4300 W 7th Street, 5C 144, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA; Tel: 1-501-257-5786; Fax: 1-501-686-7893; E-mail: manish.joshi@va.gov


Abstract

Background :

Seasonal Influenza (“the flu”) is a respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Yearly influenza vaccination is considered to be protective against illness and/or severity of illness and is recommended by CDC for all individuals > 6 months of age. However, the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older individuals has come under question.

Objectives :

To describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients admitted to an academic tertiary care Veterans Administration hospital with influenza during the 2013-2014 influenza season and determine the impact, if any, of prior influenza vaccination upon patient outcomes.

Methods :

Medical electronic records were searched for all patients admitted to the Little Rock Veterans Administration Hospital with proven influenza during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Cohorts of vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients were then compared to determine the impact of prior influenza vaccination upon respiratory-failure and mortality.

Results :

Seventy patients met selection criteria. Mean age was 66 years. Sixty-four (91%) patients had at least one underlying co-morbid condition; these conditions included COPD, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and cancer. 60/70 (85%) tested positive for Influenza A, and 43 tested positive for H1N1. Oseltamivir was initiated in 55 (78%) patients. Forty-four percent of the patients had been vaccinated. When separated by vaccination status, those who had been vaccinated had higher rates of ICU admission, need for mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, and mortality. All but mortality reached statistical significance.

Conclusion :

The data suggest that there was no protective effect from prior vaccination in preventing hospital admission, respiratory failure, and mortality in this population of older men admitted to the hospital with influenza.

Keywords: Influenza, vaccine..