RESEARCH ARTICLE


Clinical Features of COVID-19 Patients in Jordan: A Study of 508 Patients



Mahmoud Al-Balas1, Hasan I. Al-Balas2, *, Rami Alqassieh3, Hamzeh Al-Balas1, Almu'atasim Khamees4, Rahaf Al-Balas4, Samir Al-Balas5
1 Department of General and Special Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
2 Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
3 Department of General and Special Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
4 Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
5 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Al-Balas et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan: E-mail: hasanalbalas@yahoo.com


Abstract

Background:

The symptoms of COVID-19 have a wide range of severity ranging from no symptoms at all to mild symptoms, such as fever, cough, sore throat, general weakness. Moreover, in some situations, patients may develop severe complications as pneumonia, and sepsis, leading to death. This study aims to investigate the characteristic features of COVID-19 patients based on their medical condition prior to COVID-19 diagnosis.

Methods:

A retrospective cohort study took place between the 1st of April 2020 and the 31st of June 2020 in Prince Hamzah Hospital, Jordan. Patients were diagnosed by the Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)–PCR Diagnostic Panel, either through screening or for those who developed symptoms. During this period, patients who tested positive for COVID 19 were admitted to the hospital regardless of their symptoms according to the local government health policies. A total of 508 Patients were involved and divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of chronic illnesses prior to COVID-19 diagnosis.

Results:

A total of 371 patients were medically free (220 males and 151 females). Among them, 153 patients were symptomatic (41.2%), with an average hospitalization of 18 days. Generalized malaise, dry cough, and fever were the most common reported symptoms (51%, 45.8%, and 41.8%, respectively). On the other hand, the total number of COVID-19 patients with predefined comorbidities was 137 (93 males and 44 females). Among them, 86 patients (62.8%) were symptomatic, with an average duration of admission of 19.3 days. Similar to medically free patients, dry cough, generalized malaise, and fever were the most commonly reported symptoms (50%, 43%, and 38.4%, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of chronic illnesses and the development of symptoms among COVID-19 patients (P = 0.0001).

Conclusion:

Dry cough, generalized malaise, and fever were the most commonly reported symptoms among our patients regardless of their medical condition. The average duration of hospitalization in medically free patients was less than patients with comorbidities, and it was less among asymptomatic compared to symptomatic patients. More than half of our COVID-19 patients were male and asymptomatic. A significant correlation between patients' medical condition and the possibility of developing symptoms in response to COVID-19 was identified.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Hospitalization, Medical comorbidities, Symptomatic patients, Asymptomatic patients.