Factors Associated with Suboptimal Control of Asthma among Adult Asthma Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

Kuol Peter Lual1, Mengist Awoke Yizengaw2, *
1 Mega Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Juba, South Sudan
2 School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Science, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Lual and Yizengaw.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Science, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Tel: +251913567977; E-mail:



Asthma is a major public health problem that negatively impacts patients, families, and the community. Identifying risk factors for poor asthma control may greatly enhance the establishment of more effective treatment of asthma. The level of asthma control and risk factors for poor asthma control is relatively unknown in Ethiopia.


A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 adult asthma patients at the Outpatient Department (OPD) chest clinic of Jimma Medical Center (JMC), from February 15 –March 20, 2019. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 21.0 was used for data analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to analyze the potential associated factors of suboptimal control of asthma.

Results and Discussion:

Of 150 adults diagnosed with asthma recruited in this study, 81 [54.0%] of them were females, and the mean age of the patients was 41.1 ± 12.4 years. Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) plus short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) (64, 42.7%) was the most frequently used anti-asthmatic medication. Over one-fourth (26.0%) (95% CI, 19.2-33.8) of study participants had suboptimal asthma control. On multivariate logistic regression, being an urban dweller (AOR=3.70, p=0.025) and not applying proper inhalation technique (AOR=16.23, p=0.022) were increased the risk of suboptimal asthma control, while non-prescription anti-asthmatic drugs taking habit (AOR=0.25, p=0.010) reduces the odds of having suboptimal asthma control.


Suboptimal asthma control is high among adult asthma patients. Being an urban dweller and not applying proper inhalation techniques were increased the likelihood of suboptimal asthma control, while non-prescription anti-asthmatic drugs taking habits had lower odds of suboptimal asthma control. The authors recommend large sample size studies on the comparative status of asthma control using prescription versus non-prescription anti-asthmatic medication.

Keywords: Asthma, Suboptimal asthma control, Associated factors, Adults, JMC, Ethiopia.