RESEARCH ARTICLE


IgE Mediated Wheat Allergy Associated with Resistant and Severe Forms of Allergic Conjunctivitis



Khulood M. Sayed1, Abdellah H. Ali2, *
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.
2 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Sayed and Ali

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, and Sohag 82524, Egypt. Phone and Fax +2-0111428640; E-mail: abdellahdiab@outlook.com


Abstract

Objective:

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and criteria of wheat allergy (WA) among patients with resistant allergic conjunctivitis (AC).

Methods:

A prospective comparative study was conducted on 100 patients with resistant AC. Skin prick-tests (SPTs), total and sIgE against a panel of inhalant and food allergens were performed in all patients’ sera. They were divided into 2 groups according to skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) level, namely the wheat sensitive group (WSG) and wheat tolerant group (WTG). Total ocular symptom scores (TOSS) and 4-point sign scales were correlated for both groups.

Results:

Ten patients out of 100 with IgE-mediated resistant AC were wheat sensitive, and the other 90 were wheat tolerant patients. WSG included patients of significantly younger age. Positive family history of atopy was proven in 100% of WSG vs. 67% of WTG. A significantly higher frequency of multiorgan allergy was detected in 100% of WSG vs. 20% in WTG (P = 0.0001). Thirty (30%) of WSG had associated allergic rhinitis (AR) and bronchial asthma (BA). Another 30% had an associated AR only, 10% had an associated BA only, and another 20% had an associated skin allergy. TOSS, 4- point sign scale, and total IgE level were significantly higher in WSG.

Conclusion:

This study provides novel evidence that wheat allergy is responsible for some severe forms of AC.

Keywords: Allergic conjunctivitis, Wheat allergy, IgE, Skin prick test, Specific IgE, Diseases.