Extra-Esophageal Manifestations of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Controversies Between Epidemiology and Clicnic

Hamid Saber1, Mostafa Ghanei*, 2
1 Faculty of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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© Saber and Ghanei; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Baqiyatallah University of Medical, Sciences, Research Center of Chemical Injuries, P.O. Box: 19945-546, Tehran, Iran; Tel: +98 21 88600067; Fax: +98 21 88211524; E-mail:


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is widely associated with asthma, chronic cough, and laryngitis. Many studies have focused on acidic reflux; however, acid is just one of many factors that can cause pulmonary injury. The discrepancy between the high frequency of GERD in asthmatic patients and the ineffective reflux therapy outcomes in these patients suggests that GERD may cause injury through other mechanisms, such as pepsinogen, pepsin, bile salts, or other components of reflux materials, instead of the acid. Research using appropriate and innovative methodologies to investigate these potential inflammatory agents in patients with GERD is required to determine the underlying factors associated with pulmonary disorders in these patients.

Keywords: : Gastroesophageal reflux disease, respiratory, asthma, cough, epidemiology..