Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Population



Bienvenido Barreiro*, 1, Luis Garcia2, Lourdes Lozano1, Pere Almagro3, Salvador Quintana1, Monserrat Alsina4 , Jose Luis Heredia1
1 Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario Mutua Terrassa, University of Barcelona
2 Endocrinology Department, Hospital Universitario Mutua Terrassa, University of Barcelona
3 Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Mutua Terrassa, University of Barcelona
4 Immunology Department, CatLab, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain


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© Barreiro et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitario Mutua Terrassa, Dr Robert, 5, 08221 Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain; Fax: 34-937836631; E-mail: bienvebarreiro@comb.cat


Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical picture characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, some of which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS).

Objectives:

First, determine the prevalence of MS in patients with OSA visited in sleep clinic. Second, evaluate whether there is an independent association between MS components and the severity of OSA.

Methods:

Patients with clinical suspicion of OSA were evaluated by polysomnography. Three groups were defined according to apnea hypoapnea index (AHI): no OSA (AHI <5), mild-moderate (AHI≥ 5 ≤30), and severe (AHI> 30). All patients were determined in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin. MS was defined according to criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP).

Results:

A total of 141 patients (mean age 54 ± 11 years) were evaluated. According to AIH, 25 subjects had no OSA and 116 had OSA (41mild-moderate and 75 severe). MS prevalence ranged from 43-81% in OSA group. Also, a significant increase in waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure levels, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels was observed in more severe OSA patients. All polysomnographic parameters correlated significantly with metabolic abnormalities. After a multiple regression analysis, abdominal obesity (p <0.02), glucose (p <0.01) and HDL cholesterol (p <0.001) were independently associated with OSA.

Conclusions:

Our findings show high prevalence of MS in OSA, especially in severe group. A significant association between OSA and some of the components of MS was found in Spanish population.

Keywords: : Obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, HDL cholesterol, insulin resistance..