Gulf Asthma Diagnosis and Management in Adults: Expert Review and Recommendations

Nasser Al Busaidi1, *, Adnan Alweqayyan2, Ashraf Al Zaabi3, Bassam Mahboub4, Fatma Al-Huraish5, Mansoor Hameed6, Mona Al-Ahmad7, Mousa Khadadah8, Nabil Al Lawati9, Nasser Behbehani8, Omar Al Jabri10, Reyad Salman11, Saif Al Mubaihsi12, Shadha Al Raisi13
1 Respiratory Department, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
2 Family Physician, Ministry of Health, Kuwait
3 Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
4 Al Rashid Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
5 Pulmonary and Allergy Department, Al-Sabah Hospital, Ministry of Health, Shuwaikh Industrial, Kuwait
6 Department of Pulmonology, Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Al-Rayyan, Qatar
7 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait
8 Department of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait
9 The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman
10 Department of Health, Abu Dhabi Health Services Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
11 Ibn Al Nafis Clinic, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
12 Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Seeb, Oman
13 Department of Non-Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman

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© 2022 Al Busaidi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Respiratory Department, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; Tel: +96892833396; E-mail:


The prevalence and incidence of asthma are increasing globally because of genetic and environmental influences. Prevalence of asthma in the Gulf has been reported to range from 4.7% to 32.0% and has a substantial economic burden. In this paper, we summarize current asthma management guidance for adults, present insights, and recommendations by key opinion leaders (KOLs) in the Gulf region, and key performance indicators for guiding clinical practice for asthma diagnosis, management, and treatment in the Gulf. While it is recommended that the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines should be followed wherever possible for the management of asthma, KOLs in the Gulf region have presented additional recommendations based on regional challenges and insights. There is a need for better diagnosis using objective testing, increased efforts in tackling the burden of comorbidities in the region, and greater provision of the necessary tools for phenotyping severe asthma. Furthermore, there is a need for greater education for physicians regarding asthma treatment, including the importance of inhaled-corticosteroid-containing controller medication. Regionally, there is also a need for specialist asthma clinics and asthma educators, which would serve to educate physicians and their patients as well as to improve the management of patients. Finally, the use of asthma registries, digital devices, and electronic templates would be of benefit in the management of asthma patients in the region.

Keywords: MeSH words: Asthma, Diagnosis, Disease management, Recommendations, Respiratory epithelium.