Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension among Sudanese Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal 21 May 2024 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118743064292252240422100911



Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary condition characterized by aberrant red blood cell morphology, leading to persistent hemolytic anemia. The consequential impact of SCD on the pulmonary vasculature can result in pulmonary hypertension (PHT), a severe complication that detrimentally affects the well-being and survival of individuals with SCD. The prevalence and risk determinants of PHT in SCD patients exhibit variations across diverse geographical regions and populations. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence of PHT among Sudanese SCD patients and identify associated factors.


A cohort of thirty-one adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients, as confirmed by hemoglobin electrophoresis, were recruited for participation in this cross-sectional study. Comprehensive data encompassing demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were collected. Doppler echocardiography was employed to quantify pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) and evaluate right ventricular size and function.


Within our cohort, the prevalence of PHT was 29%. Active cigarette smoking demonstrated a significant association with PHT (P=0.042), while hydroxyurea therapy exhibited no noticeable impact on PHT (P=0.612).


Our investigation revealed a PHT prevalence of less than one-third in our SCD patient population, aligning with prior studies. Notably, independent of other factors, cigarette smoking emerged as a distinct risk factor for PHT in SCD patients. This highlights the potential utility of smoking cessation as an intervention to delay the onset of this condition. However, further research is imperative to elucidate the mechanisms through which smoking contributes to PHT development in individuals with SCD.

Keywords: Pulmonary hypertension, Sickle cell disease, Electrophoresis, Cigarette smoking, Hydroxyurea, Sudanese.
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